Diplomacy: Theory and Practice, 6th ed.  –  Online updating pages

Chapter 10: Secret Intelligence

p. 165, illegals: There is evidence that the use of ‘illegals’ is increasing. This is a result of the large number of expulsions of intelligence officers with diplomatic cover (‘legals’) produced by the serious deterioration in relations between Russia and the NATO powers following Putin’s invasion of Ukraine in February 2022; see Walker in Further reading below.

Further reading

Cater, Leonie, ‘Netherlands orders expulsion of Russian diplomats’, Politico, 18 February 2023

Duxbury, Charlie, ‘Russia’s diplomatic clash with Europe flares in Estonia: A mutual expelling of ambassadors is putting into question the value of European countries’ diplomatic links with the Kremlin’, Politico, 26 March, 2023

Walker, Shaun, ‘The ‘ordinary’ family at No 35: suspected Russian spies await trial in Slovenia’, The Guardian, 24 March 2023

Wintour, Patrick, ‘Spy games: expulsion of diplomats shines light on Russian espionage’, The Guardian, 15 April 2022